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Friday, May 8, 2015

The Dog Situation

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8 dogs riddle
The Rector's four boys have done their best to make the dog situation at the rectory confusing. Each of the four, their names Alec, Bob, Charlie, and David, owns two dogs, and each has named his dogs after two of his brothers. Each boy has, in consequence, two doggy namesakes.

Of the eight dogs, three are cocker spaniels, three are terriers, and two are dachshunds. None of the four boys owns two dogs of the same breed. No two dogs of the same breed have the same name. Neither of Alec's dogs is named David and neither of Charlie's dogs is named Alec. No cocker spaniel is named Alec, and no terrier is named David. Bob does not own a terrier.

What are the names of the dachshunds, and who are their owners?

The Dog Situation Puzzle Solution

One of the dachshunds is owned by Bob and is named Alec, while the other is owned by Charlie and is called David.

To get to the solution, let's gather all the information we're given:

1 Each boy has named his dogs after two of his brothers
2 Each boy has two doggy namesakes
3 There are 3 cocker spaniels, 3 terriers, and 2 dachshunds
4 None of the four boys owns two dogs of the same breed
5 No two dogs of the same breed have the same name
6 Neither of Alec's dogs is named David
7 Neither of Charlie's dogs is named Alec
8 No cocker spaniel is named Alec
9 No terrier is named David
10 Bob does not own a terrier 

With this info, it follows that:

11 Alec's dogs are named Bob and Charlie (from 6 and 1)
12 Charlie's dogs are named Bob and David (from 7 and 1)
13 David's dogs are named Alec and Charlie (from 11, 12, 1 and 2)
14 Bob's dogs are named Alec and David (from 11, 12, 13, 1 and 2)
15 Bob's dogs are a cocker and a dachshund (from 3, 4 and 10)
16 The 3 cockers are called Bob, Charlie, and David (from 3, 5 and 8)
17 The 3 terriers are called Alec, Bob, and Charlie (from 3, 5 and 9)
18 The 2 dachshunds are called Alec and David, because the names Bob and Charlie are already taken by cockers and terriers (from 2, 3, 16 and 17)
19 Bob's dachshund must be called Alec, because there are no cockers with that name (from 14, 15, 16 and 18)
20 Bob's cocker is called David (from 14, 15, 16, 18 and 19)
21 The dachshund called David must belong to Charlie (from 12, 18 and 20)

Deductions 19 and 21 have given us the solution to the puzzle.

Saturday, September 20, 2014

Red Square, Moscow, 30th April

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"And what about these two posters?"

"Those are the posters that will be hung on the south side of Red Square: as you can see they represent comrades Lenin and Marx."

"I can see that by myself. What I meant was the other two posters over there, the one with the Red Star and the one with the Hammer and Sickle."

The four posters were lined up and showed, from left to right, Lenin, Marx, the Red Star, and the Hammer And Sickle.

"Oh, they are nothing but the back of the other two. I wanted you to also see the back-faces of the posters, as these back-faces will be invisible from the inside of the Square."

communist posters riddle

"Hmmm... so enlighten me, which is the front of the poster representing the Hammer And Sickle?"
Nikita Proskoijev grinned, "I would like to test your deduction capabilities, dear comrade; a capability, I might add, which some people have had the guts to doubt. I say that all posters representing Lenin show the Hammer And Sickle on their opposite face. How would you verify this statement, in such a way that leaves no shadow of a doubt?"

"Do you mean, dear tovarisc, that I should turn these gigantic posters around to see which comrade matches the Star and which the Hammer And Sickle?"

"I have said what I have said, dear Ivanovic; it is up to you to decide what is the minimum number of posters to turn around to verify whether my statement was true or false."

Ivanovic felt very cold, as if he was in Siberia. What is the minimum number of posters, out of the four displayed, that he has to turn around to verify the statement of that cunning snake?

Ivanovic had to turn around two posters: the first one (Lenin) and the third one (the Red Star).

All that Nikita Proskoijev said was that all the posters representing Lenin show Hammer And Sickle on their opposite face. Therefore it is needed to check the back of the first poster and the front of the third one, to make sure that the Red Star wasn't linked with Lenin's face, cause if it was, then Proskoijev's statement would have been false.

Checking the front of the fourth poster (which is what Ivanovic did, that's why he's now a lumberjack near Jakutsk) is useless; if the 4th poster shows Lenin face as its front, it would just confirm what Proskoijev stated; but then, if the 4th poster showed Marx, this would not have falsified Proskoijev's statement, because he said that Lenin is linked to Hammer And Sickle, while he didn't state that Hammer And Sickle are linked to Lenin.